Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifer) assigned:
Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development
of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137.
Article without DOI (Digital Object Identifier) assigned - use Journal homepage URL:
Minkler, M., & Robertson, A. (1991). Generational equity and public health policy: A critique of "Age/Race War" thinking. Journal of
Public Health Policy, 12(3), 324-344. Retrieved from http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/index.html
In a commercial database:
Shimpalee, P. (2004). The contribution of economic and institutional factors to currency crises: Additional evidence from Asia,
Europe and the western hemisphere (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations
and Theses database. (UMI No. 3142857)
In an institutional database:
Boyce, T. D. (2009). I am leaving and not looking back: The life of Benner C. Turner. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).
Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor
Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i49/49a01401.htm
Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Retrieved from http://springerlink.com
Laden, G. (2011, May 8). A history of childbirth and misconceptions about life expectancy [Blog post]. Retrieved from
American Diabetes Association. (2014, March 31). Skin complications. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003).
Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung
Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy Production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report 31134). Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from National Bureau
of Economic Research website: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124
Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on Energy
and Sustainable Development website: http://pesd.fsi.stanford.edu/publications/gazprom_gas_giant_under_strain/
Last name, first initial of review author. (Year of MMY edition). Test review of the name of the test being reviewed. In Name(s) of MMY
editors (Eds.), The edition mental measurements yearbook [electronic version]. Retrieved from the Burros Institute's Mental Measurements
Yearbook online database.
For more information:
Have an online source that you're still having trouble with? Read APA's advice here:
A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. In APA style, try to include a DOI for every reference if possible.
The current APA manual calls for the DOI number for all digital documents if present. But what if there is no DOI? Then you might need to use the URL of the journal's home page OR the URL of the subscription database in which you found the article. Confused? This flow chart from APA is a useful way to determine what you need in your citation.