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APA 6th ed. Style Guide: APA Style Electronic Resources Examples

Guide to help with the APA Citation Style

Journal Articles

Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifer) assigned:

Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development

of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137.

Article without DOI (Digital Object Identifier) assigned - use Journal homepage URL:

Minkler, M., & Robertson, A. (1991). Generational equity and public health policy: A critique of "Age/Race War" thinking. Journal of

Public Health Policy, 12(3), 324-344. Retrieved from 

Dissertations or Theses

In a commercial database:

Shimpalee, P. (2004). The contribution of economic and institutional factors to currency crises:  Additional evidence from Asia,

Europe and the western hemisphere (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations

and Theses database. (UMI No. 3142857)

In an institutional database:

Boyce, T. D. (2009). I am leaving and not looking back: The life of Benner C. Turner. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Magazine Article Online

Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).

Retrieved from

Newspaper Article Online

Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Retrieved from

Online Book

Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Retrieved from

Blog Post

Laden, G. (2011, May 8). A history of childbirth and misconceptions about life expectancy [Blog post]. Retrieved from­_of_childbirth_and_mi.php


American Diabetes Association. (2014, March 31). Skin complications. Retrieved from


Government Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003).

Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from


Industry Report from IBISWorld

Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy Production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report 31134). Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

Technical Report or Working Paper

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from National Bureau

of Economic Research website:

Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on Energy

and Sustainable Development website:

Test Reviews from Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)

Last name, first initial of review author. (Year of MMY edition). Test review of the name of the test being reviewed. In Name(s) of MMY

     editors (Eds.), The edition mental measurements yearbook [electronic version]. Retrieved from the Burros Institute's Mental Measurements

     Yearbook online database.


For more information:

Help with Web Citations

Have an online source that you're still having trouble with? Read APA's advice here:

What is a DOI and when do I use it?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. In APA style, try to include a DOI for every reference if possible.

The current APA manual calls for the DOI number for all digital documents if present. But what if there is no DOI? Then you might need to use the URL of the journal's home page OR the URL of the subscription database in which you found the article. Confused? This flow chart from APA is a useful way to determine what you need in your citation.